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Climate is the usual temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind, and other weather of a specific place. The climate of a place is affected by the latitude, elevation, and distance from an ocean. Climate is different from weather. Weather is the condition of these elements right now or for shorter periods of time such as weeks. People who study climate are called climatologists.
The latitude, ground, and height can change the climate of a location. It is also important to note if oceans or other large bodies of water are nearby. Climates are most commonly classified by temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification was the Köppen climate classification, first made by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, which was used from 1948, not only uses temperature and precipitation information, but evapotranspiration too. This makes it useful for studying how many different kinds of animal species there are, and about the things that could happen when climates change.
The climate of a place is given names such as temperate, arid, cold, dry, tundra, tropical, equatorial, mediterranean, etc.
- Subarctic regions have a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate), characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and short summers.
- Temperate climates have four seasons. Some of the countries which have a temperate climate are: Turkey, and most of the European countries.
- Desert climates are hot climates, like deserts. They just have one or two seasons such as: Saudi Arabia and most of the African countries.
- Tropical climates have warm temperature and only two seasons; wet and dry. An example of a place with a tropical climate is the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil.
- The Mediterranean climate is usually hot and dry in summer, and is cool and wet in winter. An example of a country with a Mediterranean climate is Spain.
- The tropical savanna climate features wet and dry seasons.
References[edit | edit source]
- C. W. Thornthwaite, "An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate", Geographical Review, 38:55-94, 1948
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