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A conspiracy is when there is a lot of people who are working on something in secret and they don't tell anybody about. It can also be a lie that starts as just an idea or a rumour, in order to trick people into doing something. It is also called a conspiracy theory, because sometimes it is just an idea that is not true and that is very difficult to prove or disprove because if it was true then it is supposed to be a secret, which provides an excuse for the lack of proof.
There have been many conspiracies in the history of the world and they are usually connected to people trying to take things from other people without the other people noticing until it is too late. There are a lot of conspiracy theories because anybody can make one up and it because it is supposed to be secret.
A good example is the word tank. Today everybody knows that a tank is a vehicle with a turret on it, a cannon, but when the first tanks were built, they didn't want people to know that they are building weapons, so they said that they are building water tanks.
Some things look like conspiracies, but can be explained by sociology, which studies how people behave in large numbers.