He discovered the chemical benzene.
He showed how electricity in a coil of wire could make more electricity flow in another coil.
He invented the dynamo which turns energy from motion into electricity. He discovered how electricity could make water break down into two kinds of gas, hydrogen and oxygen. And he showed that magnets change the way light moves.
Faraday came from a poor family and taught himself to read and write. He worked making and selling books and was able to learn on his own by reading many books.
He went to talks by scientists and took notes. A famous scientist Humphrey Davy gave him a job as a helper. Faraday learned a lot from Davy. Then he made his own experiments. After many years he became a professor.
His work did not use much math, but his ideas were very important. Especially his ideas about how magnets have a field of lines of force.