A meme (pronounced "meem") is an element of culture or behaviour that gets transmitted between individuals.
A meme is somewhat similar to a gene. Genes replicate from one to another organism via biological reproduction mechanisms. Memes replicate from one to another individual via cultural reproduction mechanisms (imitation, learning...). Just like genes, memes may progressively evolve as they get transmitted over and over between individuals. Some meme evolutions may prove successful and last for long times while others may be quickly abandoned.
An Internet meme is a phenomenon (image, sentence, character, activity...) that became famous thanks to its wide spreading over the Internet (by means of email, social media...).
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