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|Spanish, and 36 other regional languages|
Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Bolivia (also Bolivië; Aymara: Wuliwya, Quechua: Bulibiya, Guaraní: Volívia), complete the plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Aymara: Wuliwya Suyu, Quechua, Guaraní: Tetã Volívia Mamallaqta: Bulibya) is a country in South America which borders Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile.
Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire — the largest State in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this area was called upper Peru. After the proclamation of independence in 1809 followed 16 years of war before the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. Bolivia has struggled with periods of political instability, dictatorships and economic woes.
Bolivia is a Democratic Republic. It is a developing country, with a medium human development index and a poverty level of 53%. The main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fisheries, mining and the production of goods, such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum products. Bolivia is very rich in minerals, particularly tin.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multi ethnic, including Amerindians, mestizos, Europeans, and Africans. The spoken language is Spanish, although the Aymara,
History[edit | edit source]
It is believed that the oldest inhabitants of Bolivia Indians are about 13000 years BC and date back to Around 1441 ad. Bolivia is governed by the Incas.
Around 1545 South America was colonized by the Spaniards and, consequently, Bolivia. The nomadic Indians in the lowlands East of the Andes mountains, however, were never effectively subdued by the Spanish. After the Bolivian war of independence was on 6 August 1825 independence declared the "República de Bolívar" (named after the freedom fighter Simón Bolívar). Since then, the country ravaged by wars and coups.
In 1867 Bolivia with Brazil swapped parts of the Mato Grosso and Acre for the free passage on the Madeira, a major tributary of the Amazon River. This Bolivia obtained an exit to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1903, the rest of Acre, when an important rubber area, its independence and joined Brazil.
In 1884, together with Peru Bolivia lost the war of the Pacific by Chile. As a result, the country had to cede the coastal province Litoral (now the Antofagasta region). Bolivia got cut off from the Pacific Ocean, making the Bolivian Navy since then on the Peruvian side of Lake Titicaca exerts.
From 1932 to 1935 was at war with neighboring Bolivia Paraguay. This Chaco War was due to the possible find of oil on the Chaco Boreal, a large sparsely populated Savannah. More than 80,000 Bolivians lost life, partly due to a poor organization and outbreak of diseases and lack of water in the very arid area. Paraguay eventually conquered large areas on Bolivia.
In 1952 a revolution took place. Indians had no civil rights, but the revolution gave their first right to participate. The Tin mines were nationalized and agricultural land redistributed. Presidents Hernán Siles Zuazo and the Víctor Paz Estenssoro held the Communists outside the door and kept the support of Washington. In 1964 took command of the army. On October 8, 1967, was Che Guevara picked up during a CIA-organized military operation by the Bolivian army. Guevara was executed by the Bolivian army.
In 1982 the military power is transferred to a civilian Government. The tensions between the country and Chile came back reflected at the Bolivian gas conflict in 2003.
Geography[edit | edit source]
The country is about twice as big as France and is completely enclosed by five countries: Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile. The country borders are a total of 6,700 kilometers long. Half of it is shared with Brazil. Bolivia has no seaports.
The country has three main natural regions. Bolivia is located in the West of the Andes. The highest peak of this mountain range is the Nevado Sajama 6542 meters with a height of. In part covers the country the Highlands of Bolivia (the altiplano), the high plateau of the Andes. Between the Andes and the lowland is a fertile area with wide valleys between the 1000 and 3000 meters high. The East of Bolivia is low country and includes the tropical humid area of the Amazon rainforest and the Dry Tropics of the Chaco to the Southeast. Great rivers as the Guaporé River Mamore and the border go through the Northern jungles of Bolivia and drain into the Madeira. The Chaco also consists of swamps with annual flood and. The Pilcomayo runs here and is a major tributary of the Río de la Plata.
Lake Titicaca is a lake that lies on the border of Bolivia and Peru. This Lake is the highest large mountain lake in the world (3810 meters above sea level). In the West of Bolivia, in the Bolivian Potosí Department, is the second largest salt flat in the world, Salar de Uyuni.
Top 10 biggest cities[edit | edit source]
The top-ten of the largest cities is as follows:
- Santa Cruz de la Sierra - 1,196,100
- La Paz- 850,000
- Cochabamba - 834,900
- El Alto - 745,600
- Oruro - 216,600
- Sucre - 209,000
- Tarija - 145,300
- Potosí - 143,100
- Montero - 84,000
- Trinidad - 80,700
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